CyberSecurity Updates

Computer security, cybersecurity or information technology security is the protection of computer systems and networks from information disclosure, theft of or damage to their hardware, software, or electronic data, as well as from the disruption or misdirection of the services they provide.

How Penetration Tests Can Prevent Social Engineering Attacks | EC-Council

How Can Penetration Testing Prevent Social Engineering Attacks? Sensitive information is everywhere, from the databases of the world’s largest corporations to the social media pages of everyday individuals. Cybercriminals actively seek to acquire this data through social engineering techniques. Since successful cyberattacks can be extremely costly for organizations, it’s essential to understand how to combat…

The post How Penetration Tests Can Prevent Social Engineering Attacks | EC-Council appeared first on Cybersecurity Exchange.

 Top Penetration Testing Techniques for Security Professionals | EC-Council

Exploring Next-Generation Penetration Testing Techniques in the C|PENT Course Cybersecurity has become critical as the need to protect digital infrastructure, personal data, and business operations grows. Cybersecurity professionals are always in demand, but to stay ahead of the curve, they need to keep up with the latest technologies, including advanced penetration testing techniques. This article…

The post  Top Penetration Testing Techniques for Security Professionals | EC-Council appeared first on Cybersecurity Exchange.

The Top 10 Qualities of a Successful CISO

The Top 10 Qualities of a Successful CISO A successful chief information security officer (CISO) needs to wear many hats. CISOs need to manage risk, protect their company’s data, and oversee its security infrastructure. But that’s not all: A successful CISO also needs to have certain qualities that set them apart from other leaders in…

The post The Top 10 Qualities of a Successful CISO appeared first on Cybersecurity Exchange.

Naabu – Simple, Fast and Reliable Port Scanner

Port scanning is a very crucial part of gathering information about a web service. Previously we had talked about Nmap, Masscan, Amap port scanners. But in today’s article we are going to cover about Naabu. We install and use naabu on our Kali Linux system.

Naabu port scanner on Kali Linux

Naabu is a port scanning tool written in Go that allows us to enumerate valid ports for hosts in a fast and reliable process. It is actually a very simple tool that does fast SYN/CONNECT scans on the host or list of hosts and lists all ports that return a reply. Isn’t it sounds cool?

Key features of Naabu

  • Fast And Simple SYN/CONNECT probe based scanning.
  • Optimized for ease of use and lightweight on resources.
  • Automatic handling of duplicate hosts between multiple subdomains.
  • NMAP Integration for service discovery.
  • Piped input / output support for integrating in workflows.
  • Multiple Output formats supported (JSON, File, Stdout).
  • Multiple input support including HOST/IP/CIDR notation.

Installing Naabu on Kali Linux

Installing naabu on Kali Linux is very easy. We just need to run a single command to install it. The command is following:

sudo apt install naabu -y

In the following screenshot we can see the output of the above command using that naabu is installed on our system.

installing naabu on kali linux

Now we can use naabu on our Kali Linux.

Using Naabu on Kali Linux

As always, we start with the man page (help options) of naabu. To check it’s uses we need to run following command:

naabu -h

In the following screenshot we can see the output of the above command:

naabu help options

Now we are going to test it against a target host. Here for just an example we are going to test it on hackthissite.org, so we need to run following command:

naabu -host hackthissite.org

In the following screenshot we can see the output of our applied command:

naabu is running on Kali Linux

We can see that naabu found two open ports on our target website. If we are looking for a specified port number then we can specify the port number with -p flag.

naabu -p 80,21 -host hackthissite.org

In the following screenshot we can see that naabu is just look for our specified ports only and skips 443 port:

naabu specified ports

If we didn’t specify the port numbers then by default naabu will check nmap’s Top 100 ports. We can also use some per-configured port ranges:

  • -top-ports 100 : Scans for top 100 nmap ports.
  • -top-ports 1000 : Scans for top 1000 nmap ports.
  • -p – : Scans for all the ports from 1 to 65535.

We can also specify which ports we don’t wanna check. If we don’t like to check port 21 and 80 on our target then we need to run following command:

naabu -p - -exclude-ports 21,80 -host hackthissite.org

In the following screenshot we can see the output of the above command:

naabu uncommon port scanning

If we need to run naabu against a list of target hosts, we need to have a text file of hosts (one host on a single line), then run following command on our terminal:

naabu -list hosts.txt

In the following screenshot we can see the output of the above command:

naabu host list port scanning

We can see in the above picture that we scanned all the target hosts ports. We can use -json flag at the end to get the output in JSON lines format. We can use -o flag to save the results on a file. Also we can just use -silent flag to see the result only on the output.

Integration with Nmap

We can use together Naabu and Nmap, Nmap will be very useful for discover services running on the port. Here we have nmap installed on our system and we have to use nmap-cli to perform this. So our example command will be like following:

echo hackthissite.org | naabu -nmap-cli 'nmap -sV -oX nmap-output'

In the following screenshot we can see that Naabu is working perfectly working with nmap:

naabu integration with nmap

So here in this this article we learned about Naabu, a simple, fast and reliable port scanner on our Kali Linux system. Naabu is quite easy to use and simple. It is also very fast.

Love our articles? Make sure to follow us on Twitter and GitHub, we post article updates there. To join our KaliLinuxIn family, join our Telegram Group. We are trying to build a community for Linux and Cybersecurity. For anything we always happy to help everyone on the comment section. As we know our comment section is always open to everyone. We read each and every comment and we always reply.

 

Free Port Forwarding without Router

Previously, in our some articles like, SSH port forwarding and Portmap we discussed that how we can use port forwarding without router, and access our localhost site on the internet. In our this article we are going to cover another method to forward port without router.

Why we need this? specially when we have router and we use static IP or using NO-IP services.

This is a very good question. Well, we are in cybersecurity field where anonymity matters a lot. In real world during penetration testing smart attackers didn’t use routers and static IP. It increase chances to get traced. Port forwarding using SSH or tunnels also might be traces (not fully anonymous) but it will be a little bit tough. So we can use VPN, proxychains and TOR to get anonymous.

Free Port Forwarding without Router Kali Linux

Now coming to the article, in this tutorial we are going to use localtunnel service. Using this service is very easy, we don’t need to mess with DNS and firewall settings.

Installing localtunnel on Kali Linux

We can easily install localtunnel using Node Package Manager. So, we need to install Node Package Manager (npm) on our Kali Linux or any other Debian based Linux distribution. We use following command to do this:

sudo apt install npm

Because localtunnel uses Node JS that because we need to install npm. This will install some packages and complete the process in couple of minutes, dependig on our system performance and internet speed.

installing npm on kali linux


After installing npm we use this package manager to install localtunnel. We use following command to install localtunnel:

sudo npm install -g localtunnel

In the following screenshot we can see that localtunnel installed on our system in some seconds.

installing localtunnel using node package manager

Port Forwarding using LocalTunnel

We have installed localtunnel on our system. Now we just need to forward our localhost on the internet.

Here we have a localhost service running on our localhost using apache2. This is a simple webpage for showing an example.

sample webpage on running on localhost
sample webpage on running on localhost

This is running on our port 80, so we need to forward our port 8- using localtunnel to access our localhost on the internet.

A very tiny command will do this,

lt --port 80

We just put lt for localtunnel then specify our –port number (in our case it is 80). After applying the above command we get a URL.

localtunnel port forwarded URL

By opening this URL we can access our localhost from anywhere in the internet. Before that we got a warning page (first time only) to prevent spamming or misusing the service.

localtunnel warning

In the above screenshot we can see the warning page for first time when we open the localtunnel link. When we click on “Click to Continue” we reach to our localhost page, as we can see it in the following screenshot:

localhost page on internet

We can open this page from any device or network until the localtunnel connection open. We also have open this link on our phone and reach to that web page, shown in the following screenshot:

localtunnel on phone

Localtunnel will be not very much useful for phishing etc for the warning page. But this is a very easy method for port forwarding without router. This might be very handy to show a project to client remotely. We can easily forward port by using this on our Kali Linux or any other Debian based Linux distribution.

Warning:- This tutorial is written for pure educational purpose only. If anyone do any illegal activity then we are not responsible for that.

Love our articles? Make sure to follow us on Twitter and GitHub, we post article updates there. To join our KaliLinuxIn family, join our Telegram Group. We are trying to build a community for Linux and Cybersecurity. For anything we always happy to help everyone on the comment section. As we know our comment section is always open to everyone. We read each and every comment and we always reply.

Six Network Firewall Configuration Best Practices 

Six Best Practices for Secure Network Firewall Configuration Network firewalls provide an essential aspect of network security by monitoring traffic and preventing unauthorized traffic from accessing systems. Reliable network firewall security doesn’t automatically happen when an organization adds a firewall to its IT ecosystem, however. Follow these six best practices for firewall configuration to improve…

The post Six Network Firewall Configuration Best Practices  appeared first on Cybersecurity Exchange.

Why Cyber Risk Assessments Are Critical for Businesses 

Why Conducting Cyber Risk Assessments Is Critical for 21st-Century Businesses Cybercrime is on the rise around the world, with thousands of cybersecurity breaches occurring each day. In 2020, the FBI reported that its Cyber Division was receiving as many as 4,000 complaints about cyberattacks per day (MonsterCloud, 2020). To help prevent such attacks and associated…

The post Why Cyber Risk Assessments Are Critical for Businesses  appeared first on Cybersecurity Exchange.

Manage Files using Terminal

In our previous short article we learned about the File system of Linux. In this article we are going to learn about how we can deal with files directly from our terminal window.

But did we must have to learn this? Because Kali Linux and other most popular Linux distributions comes with good graphical user interface (GUI), so why we need to learn how to something with a file from command line where we can do it just like we do on Windows system?

manage files from terminal

Well in our opinion when we are reading this on this website then we have interest on cybersecurity field. When we are dealing with an remote system (read compromising a system) we have to do it on terminal. We need to break the privileges and get into it. There are lots of things with file we need to do here (from modifying system file data to uploading shells). So we need to have at-least a basic idea to dealing with files from terminal.

Creating a File using Terminal

First we will learn how we can create a file on Linux terminal. We will going to use touch command. We just need to run touch filename command to create a file. As shown in the following screenshot:

creating files on Linux

Copy Files using Terminal

We can copy files/directory from a directory to another one by using terminal window. To do that we need to use cp command. Suppose we have a file on our /home/kali/desktop directory. We need to copy this file to /home/kali/new_folder directory. We use following command for that:

cp full/path/file destination/path

As we can see in the following screenshot:

copy files uding linux terminal

In the following screenshot we can see that our file is copied to our destination directory. We did this for a file only we can do the same for a folder/directory.

Moving Files using Terminal

We can move a file from a directory to another directory to other directory by using mv command. This is very similar like cp command. mv full/path/of/file destination/path as we can see in the following screenshot:

moving files using terminal
Our file is moved from source directory

Renaming Files using Terminal

Basically we move a file/directory on the same directory and change the name. That is what renaming do. The mv command to change the name of a file without moving it to another directory.

renaming files on terminal
We can see that we renamed the file

Deleting Files using Terminal

We also can delete a file directly from terminal by simply using rm command. We just need to rm filename command to delete any file. To delete a file forcefully we need to use -f flag -r flag used to remove contents recursively.

deleting file using terminal
Deleting files using Terminal

Editing Files using Terminal

Let we have take look at file editing in terminal. As we told that this is too much important to have Linux skill, especially during the pen-testing if we need access to a Linux or UNIX based OS or server.

There are some cool text editors like gedit, leafpad and mousepad, they may looks far better than command line text editors for their graphical user interface, but we will focus on terminal based text editors. Everyone might have their own favorite text editors, but here we are going to cover two most common options, Nano and Vi.

Nano

Nano is the most user friendly and simplest text editors. To open a file and start editing we simply run nano <file name>.

nano filename.txt

After the file opened we can start editing the text as we can do on any graphical user interface using keyboard. As we can see in the following screenshot:

editing text using nano text editor on terminal
Editing text using nano text editor on terminal

If we see in the bottom of following screenshot, we can see the command menu there. We need to memorize some widely used keyboard shortcuts like:

  • CTRL+O – Write changes to the file.
  • CTRL+K – Cut to Current Line.
  • CTRL+U – Uncut a line, and paste it at the cursor location.
  • CTRL+W – Search
  • CTRL+X – Exit

To know more about nano, we need to see it’s official documentation.

vi

vi is very powerful text editor with it’s lightning speed, especially  when it comes to automated repetitive tasks. However, it has a relatively sleep learning curve and is nowhere near as simple to use as Nano. It is so much complex so we cover the basis only. Similar to nano, to edit a we need to run vi filename command.

After the file is opened, we need to enable the insert-text mode to begin typing. To do this, we need to press I key and start typing and editing file.

To disable insert-text mode and go back to command mode, we need to press Esc key. In command mode we can use following command to use it.

  • dd    – Delete the current line.
  • yy    – Copy the current line.
  • p     – Paste from clipboard.
  • x     – Delete the current character.
  • :w    – Write the current file to disk and stay in vi.
  • :q!    – Quit without saving.
  • :wq   – Save and Quit.
vi text editor

Frankly speaking, vi is very absurd to use, many users avoid it. However as a penetration tester’s point of view learning vi is very good so, have some time to exploring it. vi is installed on every POSIX-complaint system. vi lovers considered as ultra-pro Linux user in the community.

vi is extremely powerful, Want to explore vi ? The following sources have very good manual to learn vi.

  1. Learning the vi Editor
  2. vi Debian Manual

Comparing Files using Terminal

Comparing files may seems irrelevant for normal users, but system admins, network engineers, penetration testes and other IT related professionals rely on this skill widely.

In this section, we’ll take a look at a couple of tool that can easily help us during file comparing.

comm

The comm utility compares between two text files then displays the lines that are unique to each one, also shows the lines they have in common. comm outputs three space-offset columns. The first column will be the output unique lines of the first file. The second column will contain unique lines of the second file, and the third column contains lines that are shared by both files.

For an example here we have two files “file1” and “file2“, these files contains some words, as we can see in the following screenshot:

two similar files

Now we are going to compare these two files using comm command. So we are going use following command:

comm file1 file2

The output of the above command shown in the following screenshot:

comparing two files

In the above screenshot, we can see that it compares both files.

Vimiff

The vimdiff command opens with multiple files, on in each window. It also shows the differences between files by highlighting them. Which makes easier to find the differences between files. So we run the command as following:

vimdiff file1 file2

We can see the output in the following screenshot:

vimdiff comparing files
We can notice the differences easily for highlighted area.

We can use some shortcuts which will be helpful for us, those are following:

  • do: Get changes from the other window to current window.
  • dp: Sends the changes from current window to another window.
  • ]c: Jumps to the next difference.
  • [c: Jumps to the previous difference.
  • CTRL+W: Switches to the other split window.

Downloading Files using Terminal

Now we are going to take a look on downloading files using terminal. For downloading files we are going to use wget and curl.

wget

The wget command, which we will use extensively, downloads files using the HTTP/HTTPS and FTP protocols. We can use wget url/of/file to download a file.

wget file download

In the above screenshot we had download a file using wget and -o flag to make a copy of the downloaded file our chosen name.

curl

curl is a tool for transferring data to a server or from a server using host protocols including IMAP/S, POP3, SCP, SFTP, SMB/S, SMTP/S, TELNET, TFTP and others. A penetration tester can use curl to upload things (read payload) on server, or download things from server, and build complex requests. Basic use of curl is very similar to wget.

curl download using terminal

axel

axel is a download accelerator that transfers a file from a FTP or HTTP server through multiple connections. axel has a vast array of features, but the most common feature is almost similar to wget and curl. We also can use -n flag, which is used to specify the number of multiple connections to use.

axel download files

This is how we can manage files directly from Linux terminal. In this article, we learnt how we can copy, move, rename, delete, edit, compare and download files on Linux or UNIX like system. We don’t need GUI for this. Learning these things are very important for cybersecurity students.

Love our articles? Make sure to follow us on Twitter and GitHub, we post article updates there. To join our KaliLinuxIn family, join our Telegram Group. We are trying to build a community for Linux and Cybersecurity. For anything we always happy to help everyone on the comment section. As we know our comment section is always open to everyone. We read each and every comment and we always reply.

Best USB WiFi Adapter For Kali Linux 2022 [Updated April]

Best WiFi Adapter for Kali Linux

The all new Kali Linux 2022.1 was rolling out and we can simply use it as our primary operating system because of the non-root user. The main benefit of using Kali Linux as primary OS is we got the hardware support. Yes, we can do our all penetration testing jobs with this Kali Linux 2021, but to play with wireless networks or WiFi we need some special USB WiFi adapters in Kali.
Best WiFi Adapter for Kali Linux

Here we have listed some best USB Wireless adapters Kali Linux in 2021. These WiFi adapters are 100% compatible with Kali Linux and supports monitor mode and packet injection, which will help a lot in WiFi penetration testing.

Best WiFi Adapter for Kali Linux

Sl No.
WiFi Adapter
Chipset
Best for
Buy
1
AR9271
Good Old Friend
2
AR9002U/RTL8188EUS
Single Band for Beginners
3
RTL8821AU
Best in Budget
4
RT 3070
Best in it’s Price Range
5
RT 3070
Compact and Portable
6
RT 5572
Stylish for the Beginners
5
RTL8812AU
Smart Look & Advanced
6
RTL8814AU
Powerful & Premium
7
RT5372
Chip, Single Band

Alfa AWUS036NH

We are using this USB WiFi adapter from the BackTrack days (before releasing Kali Linux) and still we consider it as one of the best. For it’s long range signals we can do our penetration testing jobs from a long distance.

Alfa AWUS036NHA Kali Linux WiFi Adapter 2020

Alfa AWUS036NH is plug and play and compatible with any brand 802.11g or 802.11n router using 2.4 GHz wavelength and supports multi-stream & MIMO (multiple input multiple output) with high speed transfer TX data rate up to 150 MBPS. It also comes with a clip which can be used to attach this adapter on a laptop lid.

    1. Chipset: Atheros AR 9271.
    2. Compatible with any brand 802.11b, 802.11g or 802.11n router using 2.4 Ghz wave-length.
    3. Includes a 5 dBi omni directional antenna as well as a 7 dbi panel antenna.
    4. Supports security protocols: 64/128-bit WEP, WPA, WPA2, TKIP, AES.
    5. Compatible with Kali Linux RPi with monitor mode and packet injection.
    6. High transmitter power of 28 dBm – for long-rang and high gain WiFi.
      https://www.amazon.com/Alfa-AWUS036NH-802-11g-Wireless-Long-Range/dp/B003YIFHJY/ref=as_li_ss_tl?dchild=1&keywords=Alfa+AWUS036NHA&qid=1594882122&sr=8-6&linkCode=ll1&tag=adaptercart-20&linkId=2f09cf7cc9b84fcd2be61c590af1d25c&language=en_US
      TP-Link WN722N was very popular WiFi adapter for cybersecurity students. But after relesing the version 2 and 3, it is not so popular now, because it doesn’t support monitor mode and packet injection directly. But in it’s price range it is easy buy. This WiFi adapter have a detachable antenna which makes it very portable.
      tp link wn722n wifi adapter

      TP-LinkWN722N have AR9002U chipset on it’s version 1 and RTL8188EUS chipset on version 2/3 We have an article to use TP-Link WN722N Version 2 and 3 for monitor mode and packet injection on Kali Linux.

      1. Chipset: AR9002U/RTL8188EUS.
      2. Compatible with 2.4 Ghz band only.
      3. 3 dBi onmi directional & detachable antenna.

      We need to remember one thing that this adapter’s version 2 and 3 didn’t support Monitor Mode and Packet Injection directly we need a tweaking on it as we discussed on this article.

      https://www.amazon.com/Alfa-AWUS036NH-802-11g-Wireless-Long-Range/dp/B003YIFHJY/ref=as_li_ss_tl?dchild=1&keywords=Alfa+AWUS036NHA&qid=1594882122&sr=8-6&linkCode=ll1&tag=adaptercart-20&linkId=2f09cf7cc9b84fcd2be61c590af1d25c&language=en_US

      TP-Link AC600/T2U Plus

      Here comes the real budget king. This TP-Link AC600 or T2U Plus has really proven itself with monitor mode, packet injection and soft AP support. This WiFi adapter is not plug and play on Kali Linux. We just need to set the driver for TP-Lnik AC600 on Kali Linux.

      tplink ac 600tplink t2u plus wifi adapter on kali linux

      It comes with a fixed 5dBi antenna which can be 180° rotatable. In this price segment it supports monitor mode on both 2.4 Ghz and 5 Ghz networks. It can be the best choice for ethical hacking students. It has lots of features in this budget.

      1. Chipset: RTL8821AU.
      2. Dual band monitor mode support.
      3. Fixed Antenna

      It also require a very little bit of tweaking to make it work on Kali Linux. All about it we had already discussed on our previous article. In our opinion go with this WiFi adapter when have a tight budget, because it’s build quality is not like the Alfa Cards.

      https://www.amazon.com/Alfa-AWUS036NH-802-11g-Wireless-Long-Range/dp/B003YIFHJY/ref=as_li_ss_tl?dchild=1&keywords=Alfa+AWUS036NHA&qid=1594882122&sr=8-6&linkCode=ll1&tag=adaptercart-20&linkId=2f09cf7cc9b84fcd2be61c590af1d25c&language=en_US

      Alfa AWUS036NHA

      Alfa again. Alfa provides the best WiFi adapters for Kali Linux. This adapter is the older version of Alfa AWUS036NH with Ralink RT3070 chipset. AWUS036NHA is the IEEE 802.11b/g/n Wireless USB adapter with 150 Mbps speed This is also compatible with IEEE 802.11b/g wireless devices at 54 Mbps.

      Alfa AWUS036NH Kali Linux WiFi Adapter 2020

      This plug and play WiFi adapter supports monitor mode and packet injection in any Linux distribution and Kali Linux. Alfa AWUS036NHA comes with a 4 inch 5 dBi screw-on swivel rubber antenna that can be removed and upgrade up to 9 dBi.

        1. Chipset: Ralink RT 3070.
        2. Comes with a 5 dBi omni directional antenna as well as a 7 dBi panel antenna.
        3. Supports security protocols: 64/128-bit wep, wpa, wpa2, tkip, aes
        4. Compatible with Kali Linux (Also in Raspberry Pi) with monitor mode and packet injection.
          https://www.amazon.com/Alfa-AWUS036NH-802-11g-Wireless-Long-Range/dp/B003YIFHJY/ref=as_li_ss_tl?dchild=1&keywords=Alfa+AWUS036NH&qid=1594870855&s=amazon-devices&sr=8-1&linkCode=ll1&tag=adaptercart-20&linkId=4c49c0097d6157190cf04122e27714ed&language=en_US

          Alfa AWUS036NEH

          This Alfa WiFi Adapter is compact and tiny, but it has a good range. It supports plug and play so connect it with Kali Linux machine and start playing with WiFi security. The antenna is detachable and makes it very portable. We have used this to build our portable hacking machine with Raspberry Pi and Kali Linux.

          Alfa AWUS036NEH Kali Linux WiFi Adpater 2020

          Alfa AWUS036NEH is the ultimate solution for going out and red teaming attacks. The long high gain WiFi antenna will give us enough range to capture even low signal wireless networks. This adapter is slim and doesn’t require a USB cable to use.

            1. Chipset: Ralink RT 3070.
            2. Supports monitor mode and packet injection on Kali Linux and Parrot Security on RPi.
            3. Compact and portable.
              https://www.amazon.com/AWUS036NEH-Range-WIRELESS-802-11b-USBAdapter/dp/B0035OCVO6/ref=as_li_ss_tl?dchild=1&keywords=Alfa+AWUS036NEH&qid=1594870918&sr=8-3&linkCode=ll1&tag=adaptercart-20&linkId=c6578f6fb090f86f9ee8917afba3199a&language=en_US

              Panda PAU09 N600

              Besides Alfa, Panda is also a good brand for WiFi adapters with monitor mode. Panda PAU09 is a good WiFi adapter to buy in 2020. This dual-band plug & play adapter is able to attack both 2.4 GHz as well as 5 GHz 802.11 ac/b/g/n WiFi networks.

              Panda PAU09 WiFi adapter for monitor mode

              This adapter comes with a USB docker and dual antennas, which looks really cool. It is also detachable into smaller parts. This adapter is reliable even on USB 3 and works great and fully supports both monitor mode and injection which is rare on a dual band wireless card out of the box.

                1. Chipset: Ralink RT5572.
                2. Supports monitor mode and packet injection on Kali Linux, Parrot Security even in RPi.
                3. 2 x 5dBi antenna.
                4. It comes with a USB stand with a 5 feet cable.
                5. Little bit of heating issue (not so much).
                  https://www.amazon.com/Panda-Wireless-PAU09-Adapter-Antennas/dp/B01LY35HGO/ref=as_li_ss_tl?dchild=1&keywords=Panda+PAU09&qid=1594870963&sr=8-1-spons&psc=1&spLa=ZW5jcnlwdGVkUXVhbGlmaWVyPUEzRUUwQjNVSkNGMEFIJmVuY3J5cHRlZElkPUEwODkwNzI3MkZHWUFNUTBRMlRTQSZlbmNyeXB0ZWRBZElkPUEwNzkxNzgzMTBaUEdDS05IUzdDTSZ3aWRnZXROYW1lPXNwX2F0ZiZhY3Rpb249Y2xpY2tSZWRpcmVjdCZkb05vdExvZ0NsaWNrPXRydWU=&linkCode=ll1&tag=adaptercart-20&linkId=d9d43db491c7cf14863cc99c1b8b7797&language=en_US

                  Alfa AWUS036ACH / AC1200

                  In Kali Linux 2017.1 update Kali Linux was released a significant update – support for RTL8812AU wireless chipset. Now Alfa AWUS036ACH is a BEAST. This is a premium WiFi adapter used by hackers and penetration testers. It comes with dual antennas and dual band technology (2.4 GHz 300 Mbps/5 GHz 867 Mbps) supports 802.11ac and a, b, g, n.

                  Alfa AWUS036ACH WiFi adapter for Kali Linux

                  These antennas are removable and if we require higher range, then we can connect an antenna with greater dbi value and use it as a long range WiFi link which makes this one of the best WiFi adapters. Also this adapter has an awesome look.

                  If budget is not an issue then this adapter is highly recommended.

                    1. Chipset: RealTek RTL8812AU.
                    2. Dual-band: 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz.
                    3. Supports both monitor mode & packet injection on dual band.
                    4. Premium quality with high price tag.
                      https://www.amazon.com/Alfa-Long-Range-Dual-Band-Wireless-External/dp/B00VEEBOPG/ref=as_li_ss_tl?dchild=1&keywords=Alfa+AWUS036ACH&qid=1594871102&sr=8-3&linkCode=ll1&tag=adaptercart-20&linkId=928256b6b245a63277f865d406f44c02&language=en_US

                      Alfa AWUS1900 / AC1900

                      Now this is the beast, then why is it at last? It is last because of its high price range. But the price is totally worth it for this USB WiFi adapter. If the previous adapter was a beast then it is a monster. Alfa AWUS1900 has high-gain quad antenna that covers a really long range (500 ft in an open area).
                      This is a dual band WiFi adapter with high speed capability 2.4GHz [up to 600Mbps] & 5GHz [up to 1300Mbps]. It also has a USB 3.0 interface.

                      Alfa AWUS036ACH The best wifi adapter for hacking in Kali Linux

                      Monitor mode and packet injection supported with both bands and it will be very useful for serious penetration testers. We also can attach this on our laptop display with it’s screen clip provided with the box.

                      What we got in the box?

                      • 1 x AWUS1900 Wi-Fi Adapter
                      • 4 x Dual-band antennas
                      • 1 x USB 3.0 cable
                      • 1 x Screen clip
                      • 1 x Installation DVD-Rom (doesn’t require on Kali Linux. Plug&Play)
                      • A consistent solution for network congestion!
                        1. Chipset: RealTek RTL8814AU.
                        2. Dual-band: 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz.
                        3. Supports both monitor mode & packet injection on dual band.
                        4. Premium quality with high price tag.
                        5. Very long range.
                          https://www.amazon.com/Alfa-AC1900-WiFi-Adapter-Long-Range/dp/B01MZD7Z76/ref=as_li_ss_tl?dchild=1&keywords=Alfa+AWUS036ACH&qid=1594871169&sr=8-4&linkCode=ll1&tag=adaptercart-20&linkId=d62c81825eace1b0f09d0762e84881c4&language=en_US

                          Panda PAU 06

                          Yes, This low cost Panda PAU 06 WiFi adapter supports Monitor Mode and Packet Injections. But we really don’t suggest to buy this adapter if budget is not an issue.
                          panda pau 06 wifi adapter for Kali Linux
                          The main reason is this WiFi adapter doesn’t supports dual-band frequency (only supports 2.4GHz), it doesn’t supports 5GHz frequency.
                          This WiFi adapter comes with Ralink RT5372 chipset inside it. 802.11n standards supports 300MB per second maximum speed.
                          This adapter takes less power from computer, but other adapters doesn’t took too much power from system (this point is negligible).
                          panda pau 06 order on amazon

                          Extras

                          There are some more WiFi adapters that we did not cover because we didn’t test them on our hands. These WiFi adapters were owned by us and some of our friends so we got a chance to test these products.Be Careful to choose from unofficial sellers, because sometimes they sell exactly same model with a cheaper chipset which surely not support monitor mode neighter packet injection. As per our own experience Alfa cards are the best in the case of WiFi Hacking.

                          How to Choose Best Wireless Adapter for Kali Linux 2020

                          Before going through WiFi adapter brands let’s talk something about what kind of WiFi adapter is best for Kali Linux. There are some requirements to be a WiFi penetration testing wireless adapter.

                          • Should support Monitor mode.
                          • The ability to inject packets and capture packets simultaneously.

                          Here are the list of WiFi motherboards supports Monitor mode and Packet injection.

                          • Atheros AR9271 (only supports 2.4 GHz).
                          • Ralink RT3070.
                          • Ralink RT3572.
                          • Ralink RT5370N
                          • Ralink RT5372.
                          • Ralink RT5572.
                          • RealTek 8187L.
                          • RealTek RTL8812AU (RTL8812BU & Realtek8811AU doesn’t support monitor mode).
                          • RealTek RTL8814AU
                          • RTL8188EUS (requires modified driver)
                          • RTL8821AU (require some installations)

                          So we need to choose WiFi Adapter for Kali Linux carefully. For an Example, on the Internet lots of old and misleading articles that describe TP Link N150 TL-WN722N is good for WiFi security testing. But it is not totally true. Actually it was.The TP Link N150 TL-WN722N’s previous versions support monitor mode. The version 1 comes with Atheros AR9002U chipset and supports monitor mode. Version 2 and 3 has the Realtek RTL8188EUS chipset and requires some modification on it’s driver then we can use it. TP Link N150 TL-WN722N version 1 is not available in the market right now. So clear these things and don’t get trapped.

                          Which WiFi adapter you like the most for Kali Linux?

                           

                          WiFi Hacking in Kali Linux

                          Kali Linux is the most widely used penetration testing operating system of all time. It comes with lots of tools pre-installed for cyber security experts and ethical hackers. We can perform web application penetration testing, network attack as well as wireless auditing or WiFi hacking. We have already posted some lots of tutorials on our website and some good WiFi auditing tutorials like AirCrack-Ng.

                          Why Do We Use External USB WiFi Adapters in Kali Linux?

                          A WiFi adapter is a device that can be connected to our system and allows us to communicate with other devices over a wireless network. It is the WiFi chipset that allows our mobile phone laptop or other devices which allows us to connect to our WiFi network and access the internet or nearby devices.
                          But most of the Laptops and mobile phones come with inbuilt WiFi chipset so why do we need to connect an external WiFi adapter on our system ? Well the simple answer is our in-built WiFi hardware is not much capable to perform security testing in WiFi networks.Usually inbuilt WiFi adapters are low budget and not made for WiFi hacking, they don’t support monitor mode or packet injection.
                          If we are running Kali Linux on Virtual Machine then also the inbuilt WiFi Adapter doesn’t work for us. Not even in bridge mode. In that case we also need an external WiFi adapter to play with WiFi networks. A good external WiFi adapter is a must have tool for everyone who has interest in the cyber security field.

                           
                          WSL2 installation of Kali Linux will not support any kind (Inbuilt or External) of Wi-Fi adapters.

                          Kali Linux Supported WiFi Adapters

                          Technically almost every WiFi adapter supports Kali Linux, but those are useless on WiFi hacking if they don’t support monitor mode and packet injection. Suppose, we buy a cheap WiFi adapter under $15 and use it to connect WiFi on Kali Linux. That will work for connecting to wireless networks but we can’t play with networks.
                          It doesn’t make sense, when we are using Kali Linux then we are penetration testers so a basic WiFi adapter can’t fulfill our requirements. That’s why we should have a special WiFi adapter that supports monitor mode and packet injection. So in this tutorial Kali Linux supported means not only supported it means the chipset has ability to support monitor mode and packet injection.

                          What is Monitor Mode

                          Network adapters, whether it is wired or wireless, are designed to only capture and process packets that are sent to them. When we want to sniff a wired connection and pick up all packets going over the wire, we put our wired network card in “promiscuous” mode.
                          In wireless technology, the equivalent is monitor mode. This enables us to see and manipulate all wireless traffic passing through the air around us. Without this ability, we are limited to using our WiFi adapter to only connect to wireless Access Points (APs) that accept and authenticate us. That is not what we are willing to settle for.
                          In the Aircrack-ng suite, we need to be able to use airodump-ng to collect or sniff data packets.

                          What is Packet Injection

                          Most WiFi attacks require that we are able to inject packets into the AP while, at the same time, capturing packets going over the air. Only a few WiFi adapters are capable of doing this.
                          WiFi adapter manufacturers are not looking to add extra features to their standard wireless adapters to suit penetration testers needs. Most wireless adapters built into your laptop are designed so that people can connect to WiFi and browse the web and send mails. We need something much more powerful and versatile than that.
                          If we can’t inject packets into the Access Point (in Aircrack-ng, this is the function of Aireplay-ng), then it really limits what we do.
                          If we are using Kali Linux and want to be a security tester or ethical hacker then a special WiFi adapter is a must have tool in our backpack. As per our own experience listed Alfa cards in this list are best USB wireless adapter for Kali Linux, going with them may be costly but they are really worth it. For more assistance comment below we reply each and every comment.

                          We are also in Twitter join us there. Our Telegram group also can help to choose the best WiFi adapter for hacking and Kali Linux.

                          TP-Link AC600/T2U Plus Best Budget WiFi Adapter for Kali Linux ?

                          To perform wireless auditing we need some special WiFi adapters that supports monitor mode, packet injection and soft AP mode. Alfa cards are known for best quality and reliable. But Alfa card’s price is high for students.

                          In our this article we are going to cover a budget friendly TP-Link WiFi adapter that supports monitor mode, packet injection and soft AP. TP-Link AC600 is a perfect budget WiFi adapter for cybersecurity students. It also have supports of 2.4Ghz and 5Ghz bands on Kali Linux.

                          tp-link ac 600 kali linux

                          TP-Link AC600 comes with a 5dBi antenna which can rotate 180° to cover a long range. This WiFi adapter comes with RTL8821AU chipset which not supported on our Kali Linux (2022.1) directly. So if we plug it in via our system’s USB port, we will see nothing will happen. Ever we can’t see it’s network interface. Let’s configure it for our Kali Linux system.

                          Configuring TP-Link AC600 for Kali Linux

                          After plug it in with our system we check for our network interfaces by using following command:

                          iwconfig

                          In the following screenshot we can see that we cant see any external wireless network interface (in our case wlan0 is our inbuilt adapter).

                          iwconfig network interfaces on Kali Linux

                          Now we check connected devices on our USB via following command:

                          lsusb

                          The output sown in the following screenshot:

                          devices list connected with kali linux

                          Here we can see our TP-Link adapter (highlighted) with the chipset. It means it connected but we need to install drivers for it. Before installing drivers we need to make sure that we are using a updated version of Kali Linux.

                          To install TP-Link AC600 driver on our updated Kali Linux we just need to run following command:

                          installing AC600 driver on our Kali Linux system

                          In the above screenshot we can see the output of our applied command. After installing the driver it also not gonna work. What we need ? Yes we need a reboot. Lets reboot our system.

                          After the reboot we can check again our network interfaces by using following command:

                          iwconfig

                          We can see the result in the following screenshot:

                          network interfaces on kali

                          Now we can see the wlan1 interface which is our TP-Link AC600 adapter. In the above screenshot we can notice that the mode is managed. We can change it to monitor mode by using following commands one by one:

                          sudo airmon-ng check kill
                          sudo airmon-ng start wlan1

                          Now we check if the monitor mode is started or not by using following command:

                          iwconfig

                          The following screenshot shows the output of the above commands.

                          starting monitor mode on tplink ac600

                          We can see that our wlan1 interface now have Monitor Mode (highlighted). Now lets check if it is working or not. To do so we need to run following command:

                          sudo airodump-ng wlan1

                          In the following screenshot we can see that we are searching for target WiFi.

                          monitor mode working on tplink ac600

                          So, it’s time to check for the packet injection is working perfectly or not by using following command:

                          sudo aireplay-ng --test wlan1

                          In the following screenshot we can see that packet injection is also working fine.

                          packet injection is working fine

                          Let we check for softAP mode by using following command:

                          sudo airbase-ng -a xx.xx.xx.xx.xx.xx --essid "ESSID" -c 12 wlan1

                          We can choose any BSSID (in above example x refers to any number) and ESSID on the above command -c is for specify a channel. We can see the output in the following screenshot:

                          soft ap started on tplink ac600

                          In the above screenshot we can see that we have started a soft AP on 01:02:03:04:05:06 BSSID, and the ESSID is Kali_Tutorials on channel 12 with our wlan1 interface. Now we can see a wireless network around us using other devices on our given ESSID.

                          We left one more thing that TP-Link AC600 supports dual band and our previous all the examples were on 2.4 Ghz, so how we can work with 5Ghz.

                          Let’s check for 5Ghz support, but we can’t scan 5Ghz networks using aircrack-ng so we run following command to scan 5Ghz networks using TP-Link AC600:

                          sudo airodump-ng --band a wlan1

                          In the following screenshot we can see 5Ghz networks around us:

                          changing 5Ghz interface

                          Now we can also see iwconfig to see our network interfaces and in the following screenshot:

                          5ghz network interfaces

                          We can see in the above screenshot that our wlan1 is on 5Ghz.

                          Extra Talks

                          TP-Link AC600 is a very good affordable WiFi adapter for penetration testing students, not just only pocket friendly, it has quality also. It supports 5Ghz band with monitor mode, packet injection and soft AP. These things makes it very competitive with other adapters (especially Alfa cards).

                          This is how we can use TP-Link AC600 on our Kali Linux and use for Wireless auditing.

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